Have you selected your 2019 calendars yet? If not, and if you like cats, let me help you out. I’ve selected 12 new 2019 calendars with cute, beautiful, and amusing cat pictures on them. How can you resist? Check out the selection. However, let me fill you in first on a bit of calendar history.
Since ancient times, man has found some means to record the passing of time. Their calculations were based on the actions of the sun or the moon. Many types of calendars had their place during mankind’s history. Here is a partial record of their development.
The Earliest Calendars
The first calendar dates to the Bronze Age, once writing was developed in the ancient Near East. The natural units for timekeeping used by most historical societies were the day, solar year and lunation. The day was a 24-hour period; the solar year (or tropical year) was the time the sun takes to return to the same point in the seasonal cycle. Lunation is an astronomical term. The new moon was the first lunar phase.
Many calendar systems appeared during the iron age. These were based on Assyrian and
Babylonian calculations. The Persian Empire had its own calendar, which gave rise to the Zoroastrian and the Hebrew versions.
Calendar Reform under Julius Caesar; the Gregorian Calendar
The Roman calendar was refined by Julius Caesar in 45 BCE. The Julian calendar, instead of being dependent on observations of the moon, simply established a leap year every four years.
In 1582, the Gregorian calendar was introduced. Today it is used worldwide as the secular calendar.
Origin of the Name
The word “calendar” comes from the “calends,” which was the term for the first day of the month in Rome. The word is related to the verb “to call out,” which refers to the announcement that the new moon was just seen.
In Latin, the word was “calendarium,” which meant “account book” or “register,” Debts were settled on the “calends” of each month. This Latin term was adopted into Old French as “calendier,” and from there it migrated into Middle English as “calender” by the 13th century. The spelling “calendar” comes from early modern English.
Before written calendars, prehistoric structures were used to keep track of the passing of the year. A Mesolithic arrangement of 12 pits and an arc were found in Warren Field, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. This device for marking time dates from roughly 10,000 years ago. It has been called a lunar calendar and was named the “world’s oldest non-calendar” in 2013.
Other Early Means of Marking Time Passage
The Persians believed in the importance of keeping a record of the days, and were among the first cultures to use a solar calendar. The sun is related closely to the folklore of Cyrus the Great, as it has always been an important symbol to Iranian culture.
From old Persian writings we learn that the early Iranians used a 360-day calendar based directly on solar observation. There were some interesting differences from our modern version. Days were not named. The month had two or three divisions, depending on the phases of the moon. Twelve months of 30 days became the pastoral year. The months were named for festivals or special activities. A thirteenth month was added every six years to keep calendar and seasons aligned.
The Greeks apparently recognized 12 lunar months. Besides a “festival” calendar, they also had a “political” calendar. These Greek documents were quite varied and confusing, becoming even more
diversified by the Hellenistic period.
At that time, every Greek state had a different calendar tradition. Among these, the calendar of Delphi was very important because it dated the manumission of slaves, both in the Delphian and in the regional calendar.
The Romans had an eight-day week, with market day being held every eight days.
Modern Calendar Develops in Rome
The old Roman calendar had 304 days, divided into ten months. The ancient historian, Livy, gave credit to an early Roman king, Numa Pompilius, for developing a 12-month calendar. Under Julius Caesar and later, Augustus, the 365-day Julian calendar, with its leap year every four years, was adopted.
Other Calendars Still In Use
Though the Gregorian calendar is now used worldwide for secular purposes, many ancient calendars remain in regional use for religious or social pursuits. In my village of Ouzinkie, we used two calendars. For the majority of our needs, we referred to the Gregorian calendar.
Russian Orthodox people in the village also used the Julian calendar. Therefore, their holidays, like Easter, Christmas, and New Year’s, were celebrated on a different day. Their calendar also shows the Saint’s Days and important religious celebrations.
How Do You Define Time
It interests me that, since early man, we have tried to devise a way to track the passage of time. When you look at the history of our development of tracking methods, you will find many, many variations on the theme. The sun rotates and we call its turning “time.” However, “time” is simply an idea we have developed to explain the rotation of the planets, sun, and moon. Though the idea of a calendar is pretty basic, and almost essential in the modern world, time still remains a somewhat mystic concept. Time is artificial; something created by man to help explain the world. Time is an elusive thing, and we will never know how much time we have left in our lives. So, enjoy it while you can.
The source for the information in this article was Wikipedia.
And Now, Take a Look at These Fun Calendars
To help you record the passing of your days, I am happy to offer you a fine selection of 2019 cat calendars. Any one of these will guide you well through the next year. To go to the company that carries these fine products, just click on the picture of the item or on the highlighted link, and you will be taken directly to the seller’s page. We all need new 2019 calendars — Pick yours now!
365 cats 2019 desk calendar, Price 14.99
Hale Cats 2019 Wall Calendar by Rachael Hale, Price $14.99
Garfield Desk Calendar, Price 14.99
Cat Gallery 2019 Wall Calendar, Price $16.99
Cats and Kittens Easel Desk Calendar, Price $12.95
Really important stuff my cat has taught me, Price $14.99
Kliban Cat Sticker Wall Calendar, Price 14.99
365 Kittens a Year, 2019 Calendar, Price $15.99
Patterson Cats 2019 Wall Calendar, Price $14.99
Kittens and Puppies Wall Calendar, Price 9.99
Hope you like this selection. Both the blue item title and the image have links to the seller, so if you would like to order your new calendar or perhaps pick up a couple for gifts, just click to purchase. If you have friends who might like to see this selection, please share. Thanks much!